Tonight the Science Communication Forum at Imperial College held a debate called Open Access: Going for Gold? with Stephen Curry (Imperial) and Mark Thorley (NERC, RCUK). The debate was chaired by Richard Van Noorden (Nature News).
Lots of things were discussed but a couple things in particular stuck in my mind writing this on the way home.
RCUK require for CC-BY for gold, but only CC-BY-NC for green
Under the new RCUK policy researchers must either pay a fee to publish in a gold open access journal or alternatively publish in a closed access journal and then deposit the article in a repository within 6 months.[^embargos]
Gold articles must be published with a CC-BY licence. This is good as it means anyone can do what they want with the work as long as the original authors are attributed. However, green articles deposited in a repository after the embargo period are only required to have a CC-BY-NC licence, meaning that you cannot use the work for commercial purposes.
This is very disappointing. Sadly it wasn’t discussed in the debate. CC-BY-NC is, as tweeted during the debate, a licence of fear. All it says is that the authors couldn’t think of a way to make money out of the work, so they’ll be damned if anyone else does. The work might as well have never happened.
Thorley talked about open access benefiting “UK PLC”, but CC-BY-NC is at complete odds with this. CC-BY-NC stifles innovation and progress. Furthermore, if the state funded the research, then the state and the rest of society should benefit from it. Under CC-BY-NC, no one benefits.
Green is of poorer quality than gold?
A couple of people doubted the quality of papers published straight to repositories like arXiv. I’m not so convinced. Firstly, they assume the reader is stupid and can’t work out for themselves if a paper is a load of nonsense. Secondly, it assumes that peer review weeds out all the bad papers. It doesn’t. Someone suggested a kitemark to say that a particular paper in a repository is trustworthy. I hope I don’t have to explain why that’s an awful idea.
Thorley did at one point say something about gold papers being better for the lay person. Curry looked quite suprised. This is a completely different debate. Just because a paper is literally accessible to the public doesn’t mean the information contained within it is intelligible to the public. But if someone is interested enough to be reading papers I don’t think gold/green will really make that much of a difference to them—not enough to justify an APC. I wonder what percentage of papers even undergo any major revisions between submission and publication.
CC-BY-NC for green is a real disaster. I sincerely hope RCUK revise their policy so that it’s the same as gold.
I still can’t make up my mind about green versus gold. On the one hand, I think everything should go straight into repositories like arXiv. Forget journals and use the money we save to help fund and develop repositories, (although I know this is really very unlikely to ever happen). But on the other, if we are going to pay journals to publish work, we should expect more in return. Not just PDFs, but high quality (interactive?) documents including data and code in reuseable formats and tools to help us do things like text mining. I can’t help but think there’s very little innovation in publishing, especially considering the size of their profit margins.
It’s clear a lot more will happen in the open access debate. As Thorley said, this isn’t an event, it’s a journey. Hopefully it won’t be too arduous.
Update: gold—a free market for innovation?
Having slept it on it I can see where RCUK are coming from with their preference for gold, but I think they’re overestimating what publishers actually offer at the moment. Do most journals currently add enough value for it to be worth the APC? I’m not sure. I get the feeling people tend to think that every journal produces papers as beautiful as NPG. Authors will be paying the journal to publish, therefore we should expect more in return—especially considering the tidy profit margins. At present, I don’t think gold is that much better than green in that respect.
If, as Curry said, scientists end their addiction to impact factors (increasingly likely as HEFCE will be enforcing their ban on them), gold might lead to a more free market-like situation. Scientists will look around for journals that offer the best value for money. This could really drive innovation in scientific publishing as publishers are going to be competing in terms of what they can offer scientists rather than what the journal can do for an author’s career.
(Updated on 09:02 on 27th September 2012 with additional section.)
[^embargos]: Thorley said that the embargo periods vary in length from publisher to publisher. He was pretty clear about 6 months and said 12 months was “a joke”. Personally I think 6 months is still far too long. It also raises the question: do publishers only add such little value that its only worth 6 months? Why bother with it in the first place?